Continental wiki

A continent is one of several very large landmasses. Generally identified by convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Geologicallythe continents correspond to areas of continental crust that are found on the continental platesbut include continental fragments such as Madagascar that are not commonly referred to as continents.

Some geological continents are largely covered with watersuch as Zealandia see submerged continents below. Continental crust is only known to exist on Earth. Oceanic islands are frequently grouped with a neighbouring continent to divide all the world's land into regions.

Under this scheme, most of the island countries and territories in the Pacific Ocean are grouped together with the continent of Australia to form a region called Oceania. By convention, "continents are understood to be large, continuous, discrete masses of land, ideally separated by expanses of water. Earth 's major landmasses all have coasts on a single, continuous World Oceanwhich is divided into a number of principal oceanic components by the continents and various geographic criteria.

The most restricted meaning of continent is that of a continuous [6] area of land or mainland, with the coastline and any land boundaries forming the edge of the continent. In this sense the term continental Europe sometimes referred to in Britain as "the Continent" is used to refer to mainland Europe, excluding islands such as Great BritainIrelandMalta and Icelandand the term continent of Australia may refer to the mainland of Australiaexcluding Tasmania and New Guinea.

Similarly, the continental United States refers to the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia in central North America and may include Alaska in the northwest of the continent the two being separated by Canadawhile excluding Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. From the perspective of geology or physical geographycontinent may be extended beyond the confines of continuous dry land to include the shallow, submerged adjacent area the continental shelf [7] and the islands on the shelf continental islandsas they are structurally part of the continent.

From this perspective, the edge of the continental shelf is the true edge of the continent, as shorelines vary with changes in sea level. As a cultural constructthe concept of a continent may go beyond the continental shelf to include oceanic islands and continental fragments.

In this way, Iceland is considered part of Europe and Madagascar part of Africa. Extrapolating the concept to its extreme, some geographers group the Australian continental plate with other islands in the Pacific into one "quasi-continent" called Oceania.

This divides the entire land surface of Earth into continents or quasi-continents. The ideal criterion that each continent is a discrete landmass is commonly relaxed due to historical conventions. Of the seven most globally recognized continents, only Antarctica and Australia are completely separated from other continents by the ocean. Several continents are defined not as absolutely distinct bodies but as " more or less discrete masses of land".

In both cases, there is no complete separation of these landmasses by water disregarding the Suez Canal and Panama Canalwhich are both narrow and shallow, as well as man-made.

Both these isthmuses are very narrow compared to the bulk of the landmasses they unite. North America and South America are treated as separate continents in the seven-continent model. However, they may also be viewed as a single continent known as America. The criterion of a discrete landmass is completely disregarded if the continuous landmass of Eurasia is classified as two separate continents: Europe and Asia.

Physiographically, Europe and South Asia are peninsulas of the Eurasian landmass. The alternative view—in geology and geography—that Eurasia is a single continent results in a six-continent view of the world. Some view separation of Eurasia into Asia and Europe as a residue of Eurocentrism : "In physical, cultural and historical diversity, China and India are comparable to the entire European landmass, not to a single European country. If continents are defined strictly as discrete landmasses, embracing all the contiguous land of a body, then Africa, Asia, and Europe form a single continent which may be referred to as Afro-Eurasia.

When sea levels were lower during the Pleistocene ice agesgreater areas of continental shelf were exposed as dry land, forming land bridges.

At those times Australia—New Guinea was a single, continuous continent. Likewise, the Americas and Afro-Eurasia were joined by the Bering land bridge. Other islands such as Great Britain were joined to the mainlands of their continents.

There are several ways of distinguishing the continents:. As previously mentioned, some geographers use the name Oceania for a region including most of the island countries and territories in the Pacific Ocean as well as the continent of Australia. The following table summarizes the area and population of the continental regions used by the United Nations. Aside from the conventionally known continents, the scope and meaning of the term continent varies.

Supercontinentslargely in evidence earlier in the geological record, are landmasses that comprise more than one craton or continental core.The Lincoln Continental is a series of mid-sized and full-sized luxury cars produced by Lincolna division of the American automaker Ford Motor Company. The model line was introduced following the construction of a personal vehicle for Edsel Fordwho commissioned a coachbuilt Lincoln-Zephyr convertible, developed as a vacation vehicle to attract potential Lincoln buyers.

In what would give the model line its name, the exterior was given European "continental" styling elements, including a rear-mounted spare tire. In production for over 55 years across nine different decades, Lincoln has produced ten generations of the Continental.

Within the Lincoln model line, the Continental has served several roles ranging from its flagship to its base-trim sedan. From toLincoln sold the Continental as its exclusive model line. The model line has also gone on hiatus three times. From tothe nameplate was briefly retired. Inthe Continental was renamed the Lincoln Town Car to accommodate the seventh-generation Continental.

As part of its entry into full-scale production, the first-generation Continental was the progenitor of an entirely new automotive segment, the personal luxury car. Following World War II, the segment evolved into coupes and convertibles larger than sports cars and grand touring cars with an emphasis on features, styling, and comfort over performance and handling.

From tothe Continental nameplate was the namesake of the short-lived Continental Division, marketing the — Continental Mark II as the worldwide flagship of Ford Motor Company; as a second successor, Ford introduced the Continental Mark series inproduced over six generations to Along with the creation of the personal luxury car segment, the Lincoln Continental marked the zenith of several designs in American automotive history.

The Continental is the final American vehicle line with a factory-produced V12 enginethe final four-door convertibleand the final model line to undergo downsizing for the model year. Using the blueprints of the streamlined Lincoln-Zephyr as a starting point, Gregorie sketched a design for a convertible with a redesigned body; allegedly, the initial sketch for the design was completed in an hour.

At the time work had begun on the first Continental coupe, Lincoln had previously cancelled the Lincoln K-series coupes, sedans, and limousines, and produced the very limited Lincoln Custom limousine, along with the smaller Lincoln-Zephyr coupes and sedans.

continental wiki

Ford wanted to revive the popularity of the — Lincoln Victoria coupe and convertible but with a more modern approach, reflecting European styling influences for the Continental. By design, the Edsel Ford prototype could be considered a channelled and sectioned Lincoln-Zephyr convertible; although the vehicle wore a conventional windshield profile, the prototype sat nearly 7 inches lower than a standard Lincoln.

With the massive decrease in height, the running boards were deleted entirely. In contrast to the Zephyr and in a massive change from the K-Series Lincolnthe hood sat nearly level with the fenders. To focus on the styling of the car, the chrome trim on the car was largely restricted to the grille; instead of door handles, pushbuttons opened the doors.

As with the Lincoln-Zephyr, the prototype was fitted with a cubic-inch V12 engine; it was fitted with front and rear transverse leaf springs and hydraulic drum brakes. The design would introduce two long-running features used in many American automobile designs. The modified body gave the design new proportions over its Zephyr counterpart; with the hoodline sitting lower over the V12 engine and the passenger compartment moved rearward, the prototype had more in common with classic era "long-hood, short deck" body configurations versus being a strict adherent of contemporary streamline moderne design trends.

As a consequence of the smaller trunk space, the spare tire was mounted behind the trunk; while disappearing on American cars, the externally mounted, covered spare tire remained a feature on European-produced cars.

The prototype designed by Gregorie was produced on time, making the deadline to be delivered to Edsel Ford in Florida. Interest from well-off friends was high; Edsel sent a telegram back to Michigan that he could sell a thousand of them. In reference to its European-inspired design, the Lincoln-based prototype received its name: Continental. Immediately, production commenced on the Lincoln Continental, with the majority of production being "Cabriolet" convertibles and a rare number of coupes.

They were extensively hand-built; the two dozen models and built examples were built with hand-hammered body panels; dies for machine-pressing were not constructed until The limited number of models produced are commonly referred to as ' Continentals'. Lincoln Continentals from to shared largely the same body design with each other; based on the Lincoln-Zephyrthe Continental received few updates from year to year.

For the model year, all Lincoln models were given squared-up fenders, and a revised grille. The result was a boxier, somewhat heavier look in keeping with then-current design trends, but perhaps less graceful in retrospect. After World War II, the Lincoln division of Ford returned the Continental to production as a model; Lincoln dropped the Zephyr nomenclature following the war, so the postwar Continental was derived from the standard Lincoln internally H-Series.

To attract buyers, the design was refreshed with updated trim, distinguished by a new grille.Continental AGcommonly known as Continentalis a German multinational automotive parts manufacturing company specializing in brake systems, interior electronics, automotive safetypowertrain and chassis components, tachographstires and other parts for the automotive and transportation industries.

Continental is based in HanoverLower SaxonyGermany. Continental is the world's fourth-largest tire manufacturer. Continental was founded in as a rubber manufacturer, Continental- Caoutchouc und Gutta-Percha Compagnie. InContinental became the first company in the world to manufacture grooved vehicle tires. In the late s, Continental merged with several other major rubber industry companies to form the largest rubber company in Germany "Continental Gummi-Werke AG".

InContinental appeared overextended with its integration of VDO and had since lost almost half of its market capitalisation when it found itself to be the takeover target of the family-owned Schaeffler AG.

On 6 SeptemberContinental returned to the benchmark DAX index of 30 selected German blue chip stocks after a month absence. Continental sells tires for automobiles, motorcyclesand bicycles worldwide under the Continental brand.

InContinental acquired a controlling interest in Temic, DaimlerChrysler's automotive-electronics business, which is now part of Continental Automotive Systems. The company also purchased German automotive rubber and plastics company Phoenix AG inand the automotive electronics unit of Motorola in In Argentina, teamed up with FATE in for the production of tires for cars, trucks, and buses [22] and exports the production of the San Fernando plant to the rest of South America.

The plant was to open in two phases and ultimately employ workers. Continental also produces tyres for mountain bikes and rubber soles for Adidas running shoes. The Interior Division is organised under the following five business units: [25]. Geissingerwas hired as the CEO of the family-owned bearing and auto parts manufacturer Schaeffler Group.

Ten years later, Geissinger returned to Continental with mother and son owners Maria-Elisabeth and Georg Schaeffler and a consortium of banks, to buy control of the company. This arrangement was overseen by former German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder [32] At Continental's annual shareholder meeting Schaeffler gave notice that it will terminate its mutual investment agreement with Continental in May We are confident that the two companies will continue their very good and goal-oriented cooperation on into the future.

Continental also has a research and development arm in the tech heavy Silicon Valley where, among other things, the company focuses on developing technologies supporting autonomous driving vehicles. From throughthe subsidiary sponsored a new college football bowl game in Charlotte, North Carolinaknown for three playings as the Continental Tire Bowl. At the time, Continental was a major employer in Charlotte. However, as financial woes set in at the division Meineke Car Care Center took over sponsorship of the Charlotte bowl game from Continental.

The first two Continental Tire Bowls were both won by Virginia ; the third and final by that name edition of the bowl was won by Boston College. The subsidiary announced that effective 1 Januaryit would implement massive cuts on health care for retirees across the country. After a class-action lawsuit, the company and United Steelworkers union, representing the retirees, agreed to a settlement whereby the company would continue to fund benefits.

GM instead signed a contract to assemble packs with cells purchased from Compact Power. Veyance will be integrated into the company's ContiTech division, and will serve as the regional home office for ContiTech in North America.The Continental Divide extends from the Bering Strait to the Strait of Magellanand separates the watersheds that drain into the Pacific Ocean from those river systems that drain into the Atlantic Ocean including those that drain into the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea and, along the northernmost reaches of the Divide, those river systems that drain into the Arctic Ocean and Hudson Bay.

Although there are many other hydrological divides in the Americas, the Continental Divide is by far the most prominent of these because it tends to follow a line of high peaks along the main ranges of the Rocky Mountains and Andesat a generally much higher elevation than the other hydrological divisions.

continental wiki

From there the Divide traverses the McGregor Plateau to the spine of the Rockies, following the crest of the Canadian Rockies southeast to the th meridian westfrom there forming the boundary between southern British Columbia and southern Alberta.

Further south, the Divide forms the backbone of the Rocky Mountain Front Front Range in the Bob Marshall Wildernessheads south towards Helena and Buttethen west past the namesake community of Divide, Montanathrough the Anaconda-Pintler Wilderness to the Bitterroot Rangewhere it forms the eastern third of the state boundary between Idaho and Montana.

The Divide then proceeds south into western New Mexicopassing along the western boundary of the endorheic Plains of San Agustin. In Panama, the Canal cuts through it at 26 m 85 ft. The Divide continues into South Americawhere it follows the peaks of the Andes Mountainstraversing western Colombiacentral Ecuadorwestern and southwestern Peruand eastern Chile essentially conforming to the Chile- Bolivia and Chile- Argentina boundariessouthward to the southern end of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

In North Americaanother, mainly non-mountainous divide, the Laurentian Divide or Northern Dividefurther separates the Hudson Bay - Arctic Ocean drainage region from the Atlantic watershed region. Secondary divides separate the watersheds that flow into the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River ultimately into the Atlantic from watersheds that flow to the Atlantic via the Missouri-Mississippi complex.

Another secondary divide follows the Appalachian chain, which separates those streams and rivers that flow directly into the Atlantic Ocean from those that exit via the Mississippi River.

Most geographers, geologists, meteorologists, and oceanographers consider this point the hydrological apex of North America, as Hudson Bay is generally considered part of the Arctic.

For example, the International Hydrographic Organization in its current unapproved working edition only [1] of Limits of Oceans and Seas defines the Hudson Bay, with its outlet extending from The result is that most of the ice flowing down the Saskatchewan Glacier eventually ends up as water in the Atlantic Ocean. The exact location of this potential triple point is somewhat indeterminate because the Columbia Icefield and the snow on top of it shifts from year to year.

While Triple Divide Peak or, alternatively, Snow Dome is the world's only oceanic triple divide, there are secondary triple divide points wherever any two continental divides meet.

Using just the five, there are four secondary continental divides and three secondary triple points, the two mentioned previously and a third near Hibbing, Minnesotawhere the Northern Divide intersects the Saint Lawrence Seaway divide. The trail itself is a corridor of pathways - i. A less-developed Canadian extension called the Great Divide Trail continues through five national parks and six provincial parksending at Kakwa Lake in east-central British Columbia.

Many endorheic regions in North and South America complicate the simple view of east or west, "ocean-bound" water flow. Such basins can be, and routinely are, assigned to one side of the Divide or the other by their lowest perimeter pass; in other words, an assignment is made by determining how the drainage would occur if the basin were to be progressively filled with water until it overflowed. Large-scale maps, such as those on this page, often show double divide lines when endorheic basins are involved.

However, the detailed USGS topographic maps of the United States generally show only the main Divide as determined by the overflow rule.It was the first car released by Bentley under Volkswagen AG management, after the company's acquisition inand the first Bentley to employ mass production manufacturing techniques. The car was designed to be a highly desirable Bentley, but smaller, more affordable, yet still exclusive in order to maintain the integrity of the brand.

The Concept Java never made it into production in the form seen in although 13 cars were made for the Sultan of Brunei. However, the Bentley Continental GT realised the concept of the Java as a more affordable Bentley, manufactured in much larger volumes. Whilst external styling is different, the dashboard design was clearly influenced by the Java.

It is not a coachbuilt car. The price at launch was less than the Continental R approximately halfgiving the car a wider customer base.

The Continental GT is equipped with a 6. Changes to the Bentley Continental GT for include voice activation for the in-car telephone in six languages and increased interior trim options with the addition of magnolia hide, as well as carpets and seat belts that can be matched to either the main or secondary hide colour.

The vehicles went on sale in October The Flying Spur utilizes most of the technical underpinnings of the Bentley Continental GT, and was introduced to European and North American markets in the summer of Together, the Bentley Continental GT and Flying Spur have boosted Bentley's annual production from around 1, units into 9, units in The Flying Spur has a 6-litre, cylinder engine configured in a W formation.

Unlike a conventional cylinder engine with two banks of six Vthe Continental's 6-litre engine is configured in two banks of VR six cylinders each 2x VR6.

2016 Transcontinental Race from Belgium to Turkey

This shortens the W engine's length considerably, compared to a two-bank configuration. One notable aspect of the Continental Flying Spur is its grille which is made to look like traditional chromed brass mesh but is actually a metal-covered plastic-core. This was fitted as a safety feature; it is designed to break apart upon impact with a pedestrian.

It includes carbon-silicon carbide brakes x40mm cross-drilled front and x28mm rearexclusive 9Jxinch spoke alloy wheels, choice of 3 additional exclusive body colours Moroccan Blue bright blueAnthracite grey black and Meteor steel blue greyunique insignia to exterior, unique treadplates with the text 'Celebrating 60 years of manufacturing in Crewe', choice of upgraded veneers Dark Stained Burr Walnut or Piano Black additional veneers available at extra costdrilled alloy sport foot pedals, gear lever finished in knurled chrome and hide, diamond quilted hide to seat facings, door and rear quarter panels; embroidered Bentley emblem to seat facings, indented hide headlining and a Mulliner alloy fuel filler cap.

The convertible version of the Continental GT, the Continental GTC[15] was first presented in Septemberand was introduced to several world markets in the autumn of Other changes include a revised Servotronic power steering for improved feel and feedback, optional fade-resistant carbon ceramic brakes provide improved brake feel only available on inch wheelsnew, more upright front grille and larger lower air intakes give improved airflow to aid engine cooling; chromed headlamp bezels, two new exterior paint colours Cumbrian Green and Granitetwo new leather hide colours Newmarket Tan and Cumbrian Greennew low-friction dampers, new 'Sport Traction' mode for the Bosch 8.

Franz Josef Paefgen and Dr. According to Autoblog, the GTZ was limited to just nine examples. The vehicle was unveiled at the Geneva Motor Show. The Mulliner Driving Specification includes a choice of three standard veneers Burr Walnut, Dark Stained Burr Walnut, Piano Black, drilled alloy sport foot-pedals, gear lever finished in knurled chrome and hide, diamond quilted hide to seat facings, doors and rear quarter panels; embroidered Bentley emblem to seat facings, inch two-piece alloy sports wheels GTC only or inch multi-spoke alloy wheels in Dark Tint painted finish GTC Speed only.

It is equipped with the engine from the Continental GT Speed as well as radiator and lower air intake grilles with a dark tinted matrix, 9. The Series 51 models include additional vehicle customisation options for the Continental GT and GTC, such as use of non-indented hide for diamond quilting and contrast piping for the seats and doors as well as bespoke Series 51 treadplates.

Other options include Dark and Bright 'Engine Spin' aluminium dashboard and centre console options, Amboyna veneer, colour matched overmats and boot carpets, inch spoke polished Diamond wheel with a dark centre cap, a signature '51' badge on the front wings and an optional two-tone paint job with one colour running over the bonnet, roof and flowing down to the boot.Continental climates often have a significant annual variation in temperature hot summers and cold winters.

continental wiki

They tend to occur in the middle latitudes 40 to 55 northwhere prevailing winds blow overland, and temperatures are not moderated by bodies of water such as oceans or seas. Continental climates occur mostly in the Northern Hemisphere, which has the kind of large landmasses on temperate latitudes required for this type of climate to develop. Most of northern and northeastern Chinaeastern and southeastern EuropeWestern and north western Iran central and southeastern Canadaand the central and northeastern United States have this type of climate.

continental wiki

In continental climates, precipitation tends to be moderate in amount, concentrated mostly in the warmer months. Only a few areas—in the mountains of the Pacific Northwest of North America and in Irannorthern Iraqadjacent TurkeyAfghanistanPakistanand Central Asia —show a winter maximum in precipitation.

A portion of the annual precipitation falls as snowfall, and snow often remains on the ground for more than a month. Summers in continental climates can feature thunderstorms and frequent hot temperatures; however, summer weather is more stable than winter weather.

For example, spring may arrive as soon as March in the southern parts of this zone or as late as May in the north. It also has cold winters and warm summers. Dry summer continental climates Dsa and Dsb exist in high altitude areas near Mediterranean climates.

In some cases, the semi-arid climate classification of BSk can also be considered to be continental as long as it has cold winters. Continental climates exist where cold air masses infiltrate during the winter and warm air masses form in summer under conditions of high sun and long days. Places with continental climates are as a rule are either far from any moderating effect of oceans or are so situated that prevailing winds tend to head offshore.

Such regions get quite warm in the summer, achieving temperatures characteristic of tropical climates but are colder than any other climates of similar latitude in the winter.

In Europe these climates may grade off into oceanic climates in which the influence of cool oceanic air masses is more marked toward the west. The Forkswith St. Boniface Cathedral in the background in Winnipeg. Downtown Pittsburgh from Station Square. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the influence of continental climates on viticulture, see continental climate wine. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Boston's skyline in the background, with fall foliage in the foreground. Encyclopedia of the Atmospheric Environment.

Lincoln Continental

Manchester Metropolitan University. Archived from the original on Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from November All articles needing additional references Commons category link from Wikidata. Namespaces Article Talk.

Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons.Continental Airlines was a major United States airline founded in and eventually headquartered in HoustonTexas. It had ownership interests and brand partnerships with several carriers. However, deregulation in changed the competitive landscape and realities, as noted by Smithsonian Airline Historian R. Davies, "Unfortunately, the policies that had been successful for more than forty years under Robert Six's cavalier style of management were suddenly laid bare as the cold winds of airline deregulation changed all the rules -- specifically, the balance between revenues and expenditures.

InTexas International Airlines acquired a controlling interest in Continental. The companies were merged together inmoved to Houston, and grew into one of the country's largest carriers despite facing financial and labor issues, eventually becoming one of the more successful airlines in the United States.

Continental's shareholders received 1. Although the merged airline retained the United name, it uses Continental's operating certificate and livery. Varney Speed Lines named after one of its initial owners, Walter T. Varneywho was also a founder of United Airlines was formed inoperating airmail and passenger services in the American Southwest over a route originating from El Paso and extending through AlbuquerqueSanta Feand Las Vegas, New Mexico to Pueblo, Colorado.

Continental Airlines

The airline commenced operations with the Lockheed Vegaa single-engine plane that carried four passengers. Following cancellation of all domestic airmail contracts by the Roosevelt administration inRobert F. Six learned of an opportunity to buy into the Southwest Division of Varney Speed Lines which needed money to handle its newly won Pueblo-El Paso route. Profits from military transportation and aircraft conversion enabled Continental to contemplate expansion and acquisition of new airliners after the war.

The Convairs were Continental's first pressurized airliners. Each route included stops in several of 22 smaller cities. In the early s, Continental began several interchange routes with American, Braniff, and United Airlines. Continental's Denver to Kansas City route would interchange onto St. These interchange routes continued for many years until Continental was able to secure routes of its own between each city.

Bob Six commented on more than one occasion that, "the reason we bought Pioneer was to get Harding. During Lawrence's tenure Continental grew by percent. Lawrence left Continental in April to head Braniff Airways. He was discussing with Boeing for Continental to become one of the first to operate the soon-to-be-launched The timing was crucial, since new routes would justify the s, and vice versa.

Continental Airlines had seen a broad expansion of its routes, thanks to a responsive CAB and persistent efforts by Six and Executive Vice President Harding Lawrence who came to Continental in the Pioneer mergerwho both frequently referred to his company as "the Airline that needs to grow.

The CAB permitted Continental to drop service at many smaller cities, enabling the carrier's new aircraft to operate more economically on longer flights. In Continental flew more than three times the passenger-miles it had in During the late s and early s Six was the airline industry's leading lower-fare advocate.

He predicted that increased traffic, not higher fares, was the answer to the airline industry's problems. To amazement from the industry he introduced the economy fare on the Chicago-Los Angeles route in He later pioneered a number of other low or discount fares which made air travel available to many who could not previously afford it.

It developed the "progressive maintenance" program, which enabled Continental to fly its fleet seven days a week, achieving greater aircraft utilization than any other jet operator in the industry. In the company headquarters moved from Denver to Los Angeles.


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